Synthetic fibers are chemically manufactured fibers with suitable molecular weight and solubility (or meltability), obtained through the spinning and post-processing of linear polymers. Unlike natural and regenerated fibers, the production of synthetic fibers is not constrained by natural conditions. In addition to the general superior properties of chemical fibers, such as high strength, lightweight, easy wash and quick dry, good elasticity, and resistance to mildew, different types of synthetic fibers possess unique characteristics.
In the manufacturing process of synthetic fibers, fibers with lengths in kilometers obtained after spinning fluid (melt or solution) and post-processing are referred to as filaments. Filaments include monofilaments, multifilaments, and tow.
The original refers to a continuous single fiber spun from a single-hole spinneret. Still, in practical applications, it often includes a small hole filament composed of 3 to 6 single fibers spun from a 3 to 6 hole spinneret. Thicker synthetic fiber monofilaments (diameter 0.08 to 2mm) are called bristle filaments, used in making ropes, brushes, daily mesh bags, fishing nets, or industrial filter fabrics. Finer polyamide monofilaments are used to produce transparent women’s stockings or other high-end knitted fabrics.
It is a thread composed of dozens of single fibers. The multifilament generally consists of 8 to 100 single fibers. Most fabrics are woven by using multifilaments because the multifilament, composed of multiple single fibers, has better softness than a single filament of the same diameter.
1.3 Cord yarn
The threads used to make tire cord fabrics are composed of more than a hundred to hundreds of single fibers, commonly known as cord yarns.
2 Staple Fiber
The chemical fibers cut into lengths ranging from a few centimeters to a dozen centimeters is called staple fiber. Depending on the cutting length, short fibers can be classified as cotton-type, wool-type, or medium-length type.
- Cotton-Type StapleFiber
Length is 25-38mm. Fiber is fine (linear density is 1.3-1.7 dtex), similar to cotton fiber, mainly used for blending with cotton fibers. Cotton-type staple fibers blended with cotton can produce “poly-cotton” fabrics.
- Wool-Type StapleFiber
Length is 70-150mm. Fiber is coarse (linear density 3.3-7.7 dtex), similar to wool, and mainly used for blending with wool. It can produce “wool-polyester” fabrics by mixing with wool.
- Medium-LengthStaple Fiber
Fiber Length is 51-76mm. Fiber thickness is between cotton-type and wool-type (linear density is 2.2-3.3 dtex), mainly used for weaving medium-length fiber fabrics. Besides natural fibers, short fibers can also be blended with other synthetic fibers. The resulting blended fabric has good comprehensive properties.
In addition, short fibers can also be used alone. In the current production, the output of short fibers is higher than that of filaments. According to fiber characteristics, some varieties (such as nylon) mainly produce filaments; some varieties (such as acrylic) mainly produce short fibers; and some varieties (such as polyester) have a relatively close ratio of the two.
3 Thick and Thin Yarn
Thick and thin yarn, abbreviated as T&T yarn, shows alternating thick and thin sections in its appearance. And after dyeing, alternating light and dark color changes can be observed. Thick and thin yarns are manufactured using uneven stretching technology after spinning, and the differences in properties between the two parts can be controlled during production. The distribution is irregular and appears in a natural state.
The thick section of T&T yarn has low strength, high breaking elongation, strong heat shrinkage, good dyeing properties, and is easy to process with alkali reduction. These characteristics can be fully utilized to develop textiles with unique properties.
Generally, T&T yarn have a higher breaking elongation and boiling water shrinkage rate, and a lower breaking strength and yield point. Its strong shrinkage performance can allow T&T yarn to be mixed with other yarns to create heterogeneous shrinkage blended yarns. In addition, problems such as easy deformation and low strength should be noted during weaving and finishing processes.
Initially, T&T yarns were round yarns. With the development of production technology, some special T&T yarns have appeared successively, such as irregular T&T yarn, blended T&T yarn, micro-porous T&T yarn, and fine-denier T&T yarn, etc. These yarns either have a special feel and style or have special absorbency and are mostly used for developing high-end fabrics.
4 Textured Yarn
Textured yarn includes all yarns and fibers that have undergone texturing processing, such as elastic and bulk yarn.
5 Elastic Yarn
Also known as stretch filament, it can be divided into high-elastic yarn and low-elastic yarn. Elastic yarns have good elasticity and fluffiness. Fabrics made from elastic yarns closely resemble woolen fabrics, silk fabrics, or cotton fabrics in terms of thickness, weight, opacity, coverage, and appearance.
Polyester elastic yarn is mostly used for clothing, nylon elastic yarn is suitable for producing socks, and polypropylene elastic yarn is mostly used for household fabrics and carpets. The main deformation methods include false twisting, air injection, hot air injection, forming, and stuffing box method.
6 Bulk Yarn
Using the thermoplasticity of high-molecular compounds, two synthetic fiber slivers with different shrinkage properties are mixed in proportion. After heat treatment, the high-shrinkage sliver forces the low-shrinkage sliver to curl, giving the blended sliver elasticity and fluffiness, making it a deformed yarn similar to wool yarn. Currently, the production of acrylic bulk yarn is the largest, used to make knitted outerwear, underwear, yarn, blankets, etc.
7 Dyeable Synthetic Fiber
Synthetic fibers, especially polyester fibers, have poor dyeability and are difficult to dye dark colors. By chemically improving dyeability and dye depth, the modified synthetic fiber is called dyeable synthetic fiber, mainly including cationic dyeable polyester fiber, cationic deep dyeable polyamide fiber, and acid dyeable polyacrylonitrile fiber and polypropylene fiber, etc. Dyeable synthetic fibers not only expand the range of fiber dyeability but also reduce the difficulty of dyeing, and increase the variety of textile colors. We can supply Easy Dyeable Polyester Chip.
8 High-Performance Fiber
It has a special physical and chemical structure, and one or more performance indicators are significantly higher than ordinary fibers. The acquisition and application of these properties are often related to high-tech fields such as aerospace, aviation, marine, medicine, military, optical fiber communication, biotechnology, robotics, and large-scale integrated circuits. Therefore, high-performance fibers are also known as high-tech fibers.
High-performance fibers are usually distinguished by their special performance. There are various types of fiber materials, such as high strength and high modulus, high adsorption, high elasticity, high-temperature resistance and flame retardancy, light conduction, conductivity, efficient separation, anti-radiation, reverse osmosis, corrosion resistance, medical, and drug fibers, etc. High-performance fibers are mainly used in the manufacture of industrial textiles, but some varieties can also be used for the development of accessories textiles and clothing textiles, and the performance of these two types of textiles can be significantly improved.